Leeds International Classical Studies



Guidelines for


by volume

by theme

by author



Layout and styles




Citing modern works

Citing ancient works

Punctuation etc




Series, issues and pages


  Discussion papers

[These guidelines are also available in pdf format.]


Prospective contributors should first read the statement of editorial policy, and should contact the editors before submitting any material for publication.

Material should be submitted electronically. Files may be submitted on disk (by preference, PC-compatible rather than Mac format) or by e-mail attachment (although there can be problems communicating between different systems). Alternatively, you could place the files temporarily on a server and e-mail the URL, so that we can download them. In some cases we may need to ask you for a print-out (e.g. if formats or Greek are lost when the file is imported into a different system). If you are sending a disk through the post, you may wish to include a print-out as a precaution.

Whichever method you use, you should check your files for viruses before submission.

We will edit contributions using MS Word. If you have produced your files another word-processor, you should by preference save them as RTF (Rich Text Format) files before submission. However, contributions can also be accepted in other common word-processing formats. Consult us if in doubt.

We prefer that you use a Greek font with the same character map as WinGreek. If this is not possible, we can do the conversion; to make this easier, please indicate which font you have used.


Please include a brief abstract of the paper. This will be printed before the beginning of the main text.

Layout and styles

Please use a simple and consistent system of styles within your document.

You may use headings and subheadings (Acrobat will automatically bookmark these, giving on-line readers a convenient overview of the document's structure and an aid to internal navigation). You should not normally use more than two levels of sub-heading.

The appearance of the document does not matter (it will be different in the finished product). What is important is that its structure should be unambiguous and easy to process at the editorial stage. For example, if you use two levels of heading, all main headings should be formatted in the same way, and easily distinguishable from subheadings.


Long quotations (3 or more lines of prose, 4 or more lines of verse) should be set out from the text; shorter quotations should be run in. When short verse quotations are run in, separate lines using an oblique followed by a space (/ ).

Run-in quotations in Classical Latin should be italicised; run-in quotations from English and modern foreign languages (including Latin used by modern scholars) should be surrounded by single quotation marks.

You are encouraged to translate passages quoted. Translations should be put after the original in brackets; if the original is not quoted, treat the translation as a quotation.

References in the text should normally follow the quotation, in brackets.


Give full and precise page references. To refer to two successive pages, you may use 2f. or 2-3 (but be consistent); for more than two pages give the full range (i.e. 2-6, not 2ff.).

When giving a range of pages, as a rule minimise the second number; e.g. 92-3, 101-4 (not 92-93, 101-104). The exceptions are numbers in the teens (15-17, not 15-7), and ranges where the first number ends in 0 (20-22, not 20-2). Use a comma and a space as a separator in lists of page references (e.g. 2, 7, 19-20).

Do not use p. or pp. for page references, except in cases of possible ambiguity (e.g. if a volume consists of numbered items).


Notes will be presented as footnotes. Please keep notes to a reasonable length.

If your word-processor has an automatic footnoting facility, use that rather than numbering notes manually.

Note numbers in the text should follow punctuation if there is any.

Citing modern works

Provided that you are clear and consistent, you are free to use any reasonable system for citing ancient and modern works (except that we would discourage the use of ‘op. cit.’). Two possible models are:

(a) reference by name and date in text and notes, with a consolidated bibliography:

[in note] 15. Powell (1991) 231-6.

[in bibliography] Powell, B.B. (1991). Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet. Cambridge.

(b) full details at first citation, with cross-reference in subsequent notes:

[in first note] 15. B.B. Powell, Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet (Cambridge 1991) 231-6.

[in subsequent notes] 23. Powell (n.15) 105-17.

For books give the author’s initial(s) and surname; (ed.) if the editor; title (in italics); edition (if relevant), place and year of publication, in brackets; volume number (in Roman numerals); specific pages if required. If the book is part of a series put the series and volume number, followed by a comma, before the place of publication (or edition and place of publication) within the brackets. E.g.:

R. Syme, Ammianus and the Historia Augusta (Oxford 1968)

A. Koehnken, Die Funktion des Mythos bei Pindar (Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte 12, ed.2 Berlin 1972)

For articles give the author’s initial(s) and surname; title in single inverted commas; title of periodical abbreviated and in italics; volume number in arabic numerals; year in brackets; full page range.

N.J. Richardson, ‘Recognition scenes in the Odyssey and ancient literary criticism’ PLLS 4 (1983) 219-36

M.H. Crawford, ‘Greek intellectuals and the Roman aristocracy in the first century BC’ in P.D.A. Garnsey and C. R. Whittaker (eds) Imperialism in the Ancient World (Cambridge 1978) 193-207

Use capitals for the initial letters of words in book titles in English (except for prepositions and definite and indefinite articles); in English article titles use lower case initial letters (except of course for the first word and proper names). Book and article titles in other languages should follow the normal conventions for that language.

Editions, commentaries, and standard works of references such as dictionaries, grammars etc. may be cited by the name of the editor, commentator or compiler (e.g. ‘Fraenkel ad loc.’).

Citing ancient works

In the text cite by author and italicised title, preferably without abbreviation (e.g. Horace Odes, rather than Hor. Od.).

In notes you may use any easily recognisable and internally consistent system of abbreviations, italicising the title. When citing a particular edition place the name(s) of the editor(s), or a standard abbreviation, unbracketed after the reference.

Leave a space between author and title and between title and numerical reference. Do not use commas as separators within a reference. Use arabic numerals throughout; separate numbers within the same reference with a full-stop (but no space); use a comma to separate different references within the same book or poem, and a semi-colon to separate different books, works or authors. E.g.:

Sapph. fr. 9.8 L-P; Hor. Od. 3.1.1, 6.3-5; 4.2.1; Epod. 1.3; Stat. Silv. 2.11.

Punctuation etc

Use italics for: id.; ibid.; ad loc.; op. cit.; loc. cit.; s.v.; ca; et al.

Use roman for: etc.; cf.; e.g.; i.e.; fr. 1; frr. 1-3.

Leave no space after p. or n. (for page or note), p.1 n.13.

55 BC; AD 63; medieval; -ise rather than -ize where possible (e.g. institutionalise).

Use three full stops preceded and followed by a space to indicate a gap within a quotation ... like that.

Do not put a point at the end of an abbreviation such as Mr, Dr, Mt, i.e. where the abbreviation ends with the final letter of the full word).

Leave no space between initials in names: M.F. Heath, not M. F. Heath.

Use single quotes (sparingly) to indicate unusual usage of word or phrase and for titles of articles

When using (not quoting) words or phrases from modern foreign languages, put them into italic.

When quoting, follow the original punctuation within the quote.

Punctuation follows the final quotation mark, ‘thus’, unless the entire sentence is in quotation marks, or the sentence/phrase in quotation marks begins after a colon, in this way: ‘all good men came to the aid of the party.’


Illustrations can be included if you can make them available in an appropriate digital format. You must confirm in writing that you have secured the necessary permissions, and include appropriate acknowledgements in your text.

You should bear in mind that including illustrations will greatly increase the size of the file that readers will have to download. If you have a large number of illustrations, consider grouping them in an appendix that can be put a separate file; readers will then be able to download the text before deciding to download the illustrations.

Another way to moderate filesize is to include hyperlinks to images available elsewhere on the web (see below).


You may include hyperlinks in your text. You should, however, bear in mind the following points:

(i) Since the text must be intelligible when read on paper as well as on screen, URLs should be given overtly, rather than concealed behind linking text, either at the point of reference or in the bibliography. Examples of these two approaches can be found in http://www.leeds.ac.uk/classics/lics/2002/200203.pdf and http://www.leeds.ac.uk/classics/lics/2002/200200.pdf.

(ii) You should identify and give explicit credit to the site to which a link is made.

(iii) You should respect any restrictions or conditions which the site owner places on links to that site (for example, some content providers request that links only be made to their home page, to ensure that all users see information about copyright or restrictions on use). If in doubt, check with the site owner.

(iv) Links to external web-pages will cease to be current if and when the target page is withdrawn or moved.

Acrobat automatically links from text to notes, and bookmarks headings and subheadings (including the heading for the bibliography), making internal navigation easy for on-line readers.


Unless you request another arrangement, proofs will be ‘sent’ in the form of an e-mail containing the URL of a provisional pdf file. This will be placed on the LICS server, but there will be no link to it from the LICS index pages (and so its existence will not be made publicly apparent) until you have confirmed that you are satisfied.

It will be possible to make minor corrections to articles after publication, provided that stability of citation is preserved (i.e. corrections should not compromise other scholars’ references to the article by significantly altering the original pagination or by changing the substance of what is said). More substantial additions or revisions to published work can be made in the form of dated appendices.

Series, issues and pages

Articles will be issued in numbered annual series. Within a given annual series, each paper will be a separate numbered issue. Pagination for each issue will start at page one. (Separate pagination for each issue will ensure that delays in finalising one contribution at proof stage will not have a knock-on effect on the publication of other contributions, and also allows for appended revisions.)

The recommended form for citations would be: A.N. Author, ‘Title of article’ LICS 1.xx (2002) 1-nn.


In offering an article to Leeds International Classical Studies, you agree (subject to its acceptance for publication) to grant a non-exclusive but irrevocable world-wide licence to publish and disseminate the article in any format or medium for the full term of copyright in it.

You retain all other rights in the content. You are free to use, adapt or publish your work elsewhere in any format, provided that this does not involve entering into an agreement that would conflict with or restrict the license granted to Leeds International Classical Studies. You are, however, requested to include an acknowledgement to Leeds International Classical Studies in any subsequent publication.

Leeds International Classical Studies has copyright in the format of its contents.

In submitting your work you confirm that its publication in Leeds International Classical Studies will not infringe any existing copyright, or any other third party rights. In particular, you confirm that permission has been obtained from the owner of copyright in any images or other audiovisual materials used for their inclusion in electronic form in a work which will be freely available worldwide through the Leeds International Classical Studies web pages. You are responsible for securing relevant permissions in advance of publication, and for the inclusion of appropriate acknowledgements.

Readers will be free to download and print unaltered copies of contributions to Leeds International Classical Studies for personal or educational use. Material may be quoted, with acknowledgement to the author and to Leeds International Classical Studies.

Discussion papers

The Discussion Papers section of the LICS web-site provides a facility by which work in progress can be made public in order to elicit feedback and debate. Discussion Papers will be issued in a single numbered sequence, separate from the regular series of LICS volumes.

Contributions intended for this section should in general conform to the above guidelines. An e-mail address for feedback should be included.

Discussion Papers are not subject to the requirements concerning stability of citation governing articles published in LICS, and authors will be free to make substantive revisions to or withdraw them.

When a Discussion Paper has reached its final state it may be submitted for inclusion as an article in the regular series of LICS volumes. However, the publication of a Discussion Paper does not commit the author to offering, or the editors to accepting, such a submission.

Leeds International Classical Studies
ISSN 1477-3643

editorial address: lics@leeds.ac.uk